1906 San Francisco earthquake: About 430 kilometers (270 mi) were ruptured in Northern California. The Bank of Italy had evacuated its funds and was able to provide liquidity in the immediate aftermath. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake… Ord later wrote a long letter[42] to his mother on the April 20 regarding Schmitz's "Shoot-to-Kill" Order and some "despicable" behavior of certain soldiers of the 22nd Infantry who were looting. Intensity today is measured on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale. The lowering of sea level over about 16 minutes was followed by a series of oscillations with an approximate period of 40-45 minutes. p.225. [47], Almost immediately after the quake (and even during the disaster), planning and reconstruction plans were hatched to quickly rebuild the city. They were painted navy blue, partly to blend in with the site, and partly because the military had large quantities of navy blue paint on hand. [11], For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, due to local earth displacement measurements. Most of the shacks have been destroyed, but a small number survived. Nor was it one of the strongest. [12], Analysis of triangulation data before and after the earthquake strongly suggests that the rupture along the San Andreas Fault was about 500 kilometres (310 mi) in length, in agreement with observed intensity data. For the 1851 fire, see, Ruins in the vicinity of Post and Grant Avenue. At least 3,000 people died in the earthquake and subsequent fires. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles (9.7 km) south to a new channel just north of Marina. Award presentations, religious services, a National Geographic TV movie,[74] a projection of fire onto the Coit Tower,[75] memorials, and lectures were part of the commemorations. April 19, 1906. The drama continued after the earthquake. [62] These relief efforts were not enough to get families on their feet again, and consequently the burden was placed on wealthier members of the city, who were reluctant to assist in the rebuilding of homes they were not responsible for. Another survivor, Libera Armstrong (September 28, 1902 – November 27, 2007), attended the 2006 anniversary, but died in 2007, aged 105. San Francisco Earthquake, 1906. (Credit: Underwood Archives/Getty Images) The quake, estimated at a 7.9 magnitude, caused a fire that burned for three days. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is one of the most significant earthquakes at all time. "The commissary and the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire," Presidio file. The main shock was followed by many aftershocks and some remotely triggered events. (Image from the Steinbrugge The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the modern moment magnitude scale is 7.9; values from 7.7 to as high as 8.3 have been proposed. Finally, in April 1907, one of the buildings was renovated for outpatient care with 75 beds. [83] Cliver (October 9, 1902 – February 18, 2012)[84] died in February 2012, aged 109. [citation needed], The Army built 5,610 redwood and fir "relief houses" to accommodate 20,000 displaced people. Saul, Eric, and Don DeNevi. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake, despite its immediate horrors and long-term miseries, was not among the worst quakes of all time in terms of either casualties or property damage. At 5:12 a.m., Wednesday, April 18, 1906, San Franciscans were rudely awakened by a sharp jolt that lasted about 45 seconds. [41], Early on April 18, 1906, recently retired Captain Edward Ord of the 22nd Infantry Regiment was appointed a Special Police Officer by Mayor Eugene Schmitz and liaised with Major General Adolphus Greely for relief work with the 22nd Infantry and other military units involved in the emergency. [10], A strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. Francisco Bay area. [45] In his first public statement, California governor George Pardee emphasized the need to rebuild quickly: "This is not the first time that San Francisco has been destroyed by fire, I have not the slightest doubt that the City by the Golden Gate will be speedily rebuilt, and will, almost before we know it, resume her former great activity". [82] Del Monte and another survivor, Rose Cliver, then 106, attended the earthquake reunion celebration on April 18, 2009, the 103rd anniversary of the earthquake. Their aim: a uniform solution to insurance payouts resulting from fires caused by earthquakes. Earthquake Days: The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake & Fire in 3-D. San Bruno, CA: Faultline Books, 2005. "Soldiers in the Streets, 1906," The Pacific Historian, Spring 1978 (vol. [65][66] At least 137 insurance companies were directly involved and another 17 as reinsurers. [33], Some of the greatest losses from fire were in scientific laboratories. Over 80% of the city was destroyed by the earthquake and fire. Around 500 city blocks with 28,000 buildings were destroyed during this devastating natural catastrophe. It was pressed ahead mainly by re-insurers. The famed 1906 San Francisco earthquake ranks as the most lethal earthquake in California history, with over 700 official deaths and likely many more. [citation needed], The earthquake was also responsible for the development of the Pacific Heights neighborhood. During the first few days, soldiers provided valuable services like patrolling streets to discourage looting and guarding buildings such as the U.S. Mint, post office, and county jail. It was constructed in 1875 primarily financed by Bank of California co-founder William Ralston, the "man who built San Francisco". The camps had a peak population of 16,448 people, but by 1907 most people had moved out. 2. Looking southwest from Post and Stockton streets. [6] This is equivalent to $11.4 billion in 2020 dollars. 1906 San Francisco Quake: How large was the offset? 1906 San Francisco Earthquake on April 18, 1906. [32], One landmark building lost in the fire was the Palace Hotel, subsequently rebuilt, which had many famous visitors, including royalty and celebrated performers. The total length of the rupture was 477 km, and the main epicentre was located about 3 km off the shore of San Francisco. [89], Major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of Northern California, "San Francisco earthquake" redirects here. The most powerful on record was the Chilean earthquake of May 1960, magnitude 9.5. The city's fire chief, Dennis T. Sullivan, who would have been responsible for coordinating firefighting efforts, had died from injuries sustained in the initial quake. Caruso died in 1921, having remained true to his word. The earthquake was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada." Devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. [48], William James, the pioneering American psychologist, was teaching at Stanford at the time of the earthquake and traveled into San Francisco to observe first-hand its aftermath. Eleven days after the earthquake a rare Sunday baseball game was played in New York City (which would not allow regular Sunday baseball until 1919) between the Highlanders (soon to be the Yankees) and the Philadelphia Athletics to raise money for quake victims. [28] Within three days,[29] over 30 fires, caused by ruptured gas mains, destroyed approximately 25,000 buildings on 490 city blocks. Reconstruction was swift, and largely completed by 1915, in time for the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition which celebrated the reconstruction of the city and its "rise from the ashes". But the traumatized public reacted with fierce opposition. These effects of the fire still remain today, and thus large shocks can be sufficient catalysts for permanently reshaping urban settings. [58] The last official refugee camp was closed on June 30, 1908. 'They'll cut it out of the frame,' he says, a little anxiously. Screenshot from SF Municipal code. Some property owners deliberately set fire to damaged properties, to claim them on their insurance. Under the command of Funston's superior, Major General Adolphus Greely, Commanding Officer of the Pacific Division, over 4,000 federal troops saw service during the emergency. He then leaped to the east and borrowing a kodak he took the picture of the train here presented." Research Center, What was Learned Scientifically from 1906, Other Major Earthquakes in the SF Bay Area. Previously interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and are now believed to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by hydraulic mining in the later years of the California Gold Rush. The earthquake also ignited several fires around the city that burned for three days and destroyed nearly 500 city blocks. [23] The earthquake was the first natural disaster of its magnitude to be documented by photography and motion picture footage and occurred at a time when the science of seismology was blossoming. Chinatown was rebuilt in the newer, modern, Western form that exists today. Fatality and monetary damage estimates were manipulated. Police officers, firefighters, and soldiers would regularly commandeer passing civilians for work details to remove rubble and assist in rescues. He then leaped to the east and borrowing a kodak he took the picture of the train here presented." On April 18, in response to riots among evacuees and looting, Mayor Schmitz issued and ordered posted a proclamation that "The Federal Troops, the members of the Regular Police Force and all Special Police Officers have been authorized by me to kill any and all persons found engaged in Looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime". [70], A 2020 study found that cities that were more severely affected by the earthquake "experienced lower population increases relative to less affected cities until the late 20th century. It was the strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. By July 1906, San Francisco issued an ordinance (see image below) to landowners to remove all debris. For comparison, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake had …

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